The program of the 7th IEEE International Conference of Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007) is now available. I´ll be presenting our paper "The Web 2.0 Driven SECI Model Based Learning Process".
Nonaka and his knowledge transformation model SECI revolutionized the thinking about organizations as social learning systems. He introduced technical concepts like hypertext into organizational theory. Now, after 15 years Web 2.0 concepts seem to be an ideal fit with Nonaka’s SECI approach opening new doors for more personal, dynamic, and social learning on a global scale. In this paper, we present an extended view of blended learning which includes the combination of formal and informal learning, knowledge management, and Web 2.0 concepts into one integrated solution, by discussing what we call the Web 2.0 driven SECI model based learning process.
Extract from the paper: SECI model based learning process
Learning and knowledge management are increasingly similar in terms of input, outcome, processes, activities, components, tools, concepts, and terminologies and can thus be viewed as two sides of the same coin. Nonaka and Takeuchi adopt a dynamic model of knowledge management, view knowledge as activity rather than object and focus on knowledge creation, collaboration and practice. This knowledge creation model has been referred to as the SECI model.
The basis of this model is a distinction between two types of human knowledge: explicit and tacit. Explicit knowledge or information is codified, objective knowledge that can be transmitted in formal, systematic language. In contrast, tacit knowledge is not easily codified, difficult to express and subjective. Nonaka and Takeuchi argue that knowledge is created and expanded through the social interaction of tacit and explicit knowledge . Similar to the knowledge creation process, the learning process encompasses more than knowledge acquisition. It is a dynamic process within a collective intelligence, continuous knowledge in action, and cyclic conversion of tacit and explicit knowledge. This spiraling, highly dynamic and complex process is modeled in the figure above. It consists of four modes of knowledge conversion: socialization (tacit to tacit), externalization (tacit to explicit), combination (explicit to explicit), and internalization (explicit to tacit). Each of these modes will be discussed in detail below within a learning context, along with actual examples on how various Web 2.0 concepts and emerging technologies can be applied and used in conjunction with one another to support each mode of the learning process.
Nonaka and Takeuchi point out that an individual can acquire tacit knowledge directly from others without using language. Socialization is the process of sharing tacit knowledge, i.e. the rich and untapped knowledge that resides in individuals such as know-how, expertise, understandings, experiences and skills resulting from previous activities, not through language but through observation, imitation, practice, and participation in different formal and informal communities. According to them, the socialization mode starts with building a “field” or “space” of social interaction. Social media provide great opportunities to build such spaces and hand on tacit knowledge from one person to another.
Externalization is a process of articulating tacit knowledge into explicit concepts. It is generally based on metaphors, analogies, concepts, hypotheses, and models. According to Nonaka and Takeuchi, externalization holds the key to knowledge creation, because it creates new, explicit concepts from tacit knowledge. Blogs for example support the externalization process by giving voice to everyone and providing
Combination is the process of systematizing concepts into a knowledge system, and it integrates different bodies of explicit knowledge. Once knowledge is captured, it becomes explicit knowledge i.e. information that can be stored and accessed. Unlike traditional centralized learning object repositories, blogs and wikis build distributed community information stores with up-to-date, context-rich, and searchable learning assets. The captured information can then be transferred within
Since information is available in different forms such as texts, images, sounds, and videos, we need federated search technologies that make it possible to perform search across media and plug into multiple distributed repositories to locate relevant learning resources with
According to Nonaka and Takeuchi, internalization is the process of embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge is internalized into individual’s tacit knowledge bases in the form of mental models or technical know-how. Learning by doing triggers internalization. Bringing learners competitively and cooperatively together via multi-player games and multi-user simulations offer the potential to learn through a new form of social experience. Games encourage us to take risks and learn through trial and error. Simulations broaden the kinds of learning experiences we can acquire by getting a chance to see and experiment things in
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